«КРАЙ ЗЕМЛИ»
Historical sketch of Yamal's development by mankind
Edge of the Earth
The beginning of the human development of Yamal refers to 3rd-2nd millennia BC.
Part 1
Around the middle of the first millennium of our era a relative climate warming occurs in northern latitudes.
Herds of wild reindeers were forced to migrate further northwards. A man-hunter followed them as well.
According to ancient legends, in those ancient times, Yamal was inhabited by "sihirtya", people of small stature with blue eyes. They made their homes in high sand hills. Some legends describe "sikhirtya" as silver and gold guardians or as blacksmiths who left "pieces of iron" behind them on the ground and underground. And sometimes they are presented as hunters for sea animals and wild reindeers or fishermen.
«Sihirtya»
What has become of "sihirtya" is still a mystery. One thing is certain: a part of "sihirtya" mixed with the Nenets. They are not only predecessors, but also partly the ancestors of the Nenets. The Nenets inherited from "sihirtya" some traditional skills, as well as some cultural traditions and customs.
Almost the entire Yamal Peninsula was settled in the 6th-7th centuries AD

Pioneers of Yamal
Part 2
Sharapovy Koshki Islands
Only the Novgorod Chronicle mentions some "Moscow guest Luka and his comrades" who, at the end of the 16th century, was the first to reach the Sharapovy Koshki Islands of the Sharapov Shar Bay at the Mordy-Yakha mouth.
Later, in the first half of the 18th century, "in order to learn ... whether there was a passage through the North Sea or not", St. Petersburg outfitted the Great Northern Expedition consisting of four detachments. One, under Muravyov's command, passed on two brigs from Arkhangelsk to the Baidaratskaya Bay and sailed up along the western coast of Yamal to Bely Island. The other detachment, which was under the lead of a skilled sailor and experienced navigator Stepan Malygin, passed through the strait between Yamal Peninsula and Bely Island. The strait had no name at that time, but now it is called the Malygin Strait. In autumn 1737 they entered the mouth of the Ob River. The surveyor Vasily Selifontov, who placed beacons along the western and northern coasts of the peninsula, helped the sailors.
History has left very few names of pioneers of Yamal
Gulf of Ob
Malygina Strait
Bely Island
Back in the 16th century, Pomor travelers made their trips to the Gulf of Ob through the Yamal portage route. In 1572, their first trading post, a sea and river port, appeared on the Taz River.
Mangazeya was founded under the Russian Tsar administration's initiative as an anchor point for advancing deep into Siberia and a fortified stronghold for collecting fur tribute (yasak)
Mangazе́ya
Mangazeya is the first Russian Polar town of the 17th century in Siberia. It was located in the south-east of Yamal on the Taz River.
One theory is that the word "molgonzeya" goes back to the word "molgon" in the Komi-Zyryan language - "edging, final" - and means "people living on the edge".
In 1600, by decree of Tsar Boris Godunov, a detachment of hundreds of riflemen and serving Cossacks was sent from Tobolsk to the Taz River. They managed to found a wooden fortress and a church. The city has become a significant economic center.
The closure of the sea route led to the fact that the English, Dutch, and most Russian merchants stopped trading in Mangazeya, entailing the economic crisis of the city. The city could not recover after a fire and Mangazeya disappeared: first as a city, port and trading station, and then as a historical and geographical phenomenon. Only some echoes of "ebullient with gold" Mangazeya's existence in ancient times remained in tales, legends, folklore, and some few documents buried in archives.
Obdorsk Fair
Furs, mammoth bones, fish glue, bird feathers, birch fungus, boats, fur clothes, and other goods were widely traded in the region. The famous Obdorsk Fair contributed to this. In January-February, the Nenets and Khanty peoples flocked here, merchants, residents of the Tobolsk, Yenisei and Arkhangelsk provinces came too.
The Arctic fox served as a monetary unit at a fairly high price – 10 rubles 50 kopecks. The fair was one of the first in the Tobolsk province in terms of capital turnover. The Northern-Ob trade was entirely based on raw materials. Up to 200 thousand Russian pounds of fish per year were brought from Obdorsk to other markets.
Significant changes with Yamal occurred in the XX century

Soviet past
Part 3
In 1924, the Obdorsky district was established as a part of Tobolsk area of the Ural region.

In 1927, five indigenous district executive committees were created: Synsky, Tazovsky, Shuryshkarsky, Yamalsky, and Uralsky.

On December 10, 1930, the Yamal (Nenets) National District with an administrative center in village Obdorskoye was established as a part of Ural region. Under the new Constitution, the District got the right to be represented in the Parliament.
According to the data of the All-Union census dated 1939,
45,734 people
including

15,348 nomads
lived in the district.
The main branches of the economy of the district in the pre-war years were
fishing industry
and
reindeer herding.
Fur harvesting was expanding at a fast rate -
ten times
from 1931 to 1940.
(reindeer herders' tents) that appeared in the first years of the formation of the district were the first Soviet-period centers of culture in Yamal.
The Red chums
They solved a variety of problems: elimination of illiteracy, hygiene instruction, and much more.
In 1931-32
first aviation flights
started in the region.
In 1937,
with Omsk was established.
a direct telephone connection
In 1949, a railway was built
to Labytnangi.
Comfortable passenger ships sailed on the rivers, cargo fleet was also increased, and large mechanized quays were built.
Geology, the new branch for the region, determined its industrial future.
In summer 1958,
Complex Geological Exploration Expedition
was established in Salekhard.
Systematic and intensive oil and gas exploration was launched.
On April 14, 1962,
was produced in the Taz tundra.
the first gas
In 1964, regular flights of the then-high-speed An-24 aircrafts to Tyumen, Tazovskoye, and Tarko-Sale were introduced,
and in summer 1968 - to Moscow.
In 1964,
In 1968,
the first jingles of the district's radio
were broadcast.
television screens lit up.
In 1972, the gas from the Medvezhie gas field went through the Nadym-Punga pipeline
to Ural regions.
In 1978,
the Urengoy-Nadym
gas pipeline was commissioned.
Now